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Byzantine Churches in Constantinople Part 6

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[39] _Paschal Chronicle_, p. 726.

[40] Constantine Porphyrogenitus, _De ceremoniis_, pp. 462-3.

[41] P. 175. But according to Epigram 4 in the _Anthologia Graeca epigrammatum_ (Stadt-Mueller, 1894) Studius became consul after the erection of the church and as a reward for its erection. Under the heading [Greek: eis ton naon tou Prodromou en tois Stoudiou] it says [Greek: touton Ioanne, Christou megalo theraponti, Stoudios aglaon oikon edeimato. karpalimos de ton kamon heureto misthon helon hypateida rhabdon.] In Suidas is a similar epigram in honour of the erection by Studius of another church; [Greek: tou archistrategou Nakoleias] in Phrygia.

[42] _Theodori Studitae vita_, Migne, _Patrologia Graeca_, tome 99.

[43] _Pasch. Chron._ p. 591.

[44] Banduri, i. p. 54. In the recent excavations carried on in the Studion by the Russian Archaeological Institute of Constantinople, the foundations of an earlier building were discovered below the floor of the church. The line of the foundations ran through the church from north-east to south-west, parallel to the wall of the cistern to the south-west of the church. Perhaps it is too soon to determine the character of the earlier building.

[45] S.V.: [Greek: he ton Stouditon mone proteron kai katholikes ekklesias en, hysteron de metelthen eis monen.] The reading is doubtful. A proposed emendation is, [Greek: ton katholikon ekklesia en.]

[46] Codinus, _De aed._ p. 102.

[47] Theophanes, pp. 187, 218; Evagrius, cc. 18, 19, 21. In the list of the abbots who subscribed one of the documents connected with the Synod held at Constantinople in 536, the two establishments are clearly distinguished. They are distinguished also by Antony of Novgorod in 1200, _Itin. russes_, pp. 97, 100.

[48] Seylitzes, p. 650.

[49] Nicephorus Bryennius, p. 181.

[50] Cedrenus, ii. p. 650.

[51] Nicephorus Gregoras, i. p. 190; Stephen of Novgorod, who saw the church in 1350, refers to its 'very lofty roof,' _Itin. russes_, p.

123.

[52] Theoph. p. 747; _Life of S. Theodore_, Migne, P.G. tome 99.

[53] The modern Touzla at the northern head of the gulf of Nicomedia.

See the articles by Mr. Siderides and Mr. Meliopoulos in the _Proceedings of the Greek Syllogos of Constantinople_, vol. xxxi., 1907-8.

[54] The English reader should consult the _Life of Theodore of Studium_, by Miss Alice Gardner, for an excellent presentation of the man and his work.

[55] According to Stephen of Novgorod (_Itin. russes_, p. 121) the refectory was an unusually fine hall, situated near the sea.

[56] At a short distance beyond the north-eastern end of the church are some ruined vaults which the Turks have named Kietab Hane, the library. See Plate III.

[57] For the Constitution and _Epitamia_ of the Studion, see Migne, _P.G._ tome 99.

[58] _Itin. russes_, p. 136.

[59] _Ibid._ p. 122 'on envoyait beaucoup de livres de ce couvent en Russie, des reglements, des triodions et autres livres.' Many members of the Studion were Russians.

[60] Marin, _De Studio_, p. 11. See Marin, _Les Moines de Constantinople_, for the monastic institutions of the city in general.

[61] Cedren. ii. p. 147.

[62] _Ibid._ p. 212.

[63] _Ibid._ p. 479.

[64] _Acta et diplomata patriarchatus Constantinop._ t. ii. p. 12 [Greek: en tais hierais te kai synodikais syneleusesi; proton men gar panton ton archimandriten ton Stoudiou kai ho chronos katestese kai to dikaion auto.]

[65] Theoph. Cont. p. 362.

[66] _Ibid._ p. 384.

[67] Glycas, p. 592; Cedrenus, ii. p. 539; Psellus, pp. 87-93; _Byzantine Texts_, edited by Prof. Bury; cf. Schlumberger, _epopee byzantine a la fin du dixieme siecle_, p. 372.

[68] See Cedrenus, ii. p. 555; Will, _Commemoratio brevis_, p. 150; Schlumberger, _op. cit._ chapitre viii.

[69] Attaliotes, pp. 304, 306; Glycas, p. 617; Scylitzes, pp. 738-39.

[70] Scylitzes, pp. 649-51; Bryennius, p. 20.

[71] Acropolita, p. 197.

[72] Ducas, p. 99 [Greek: plesion tou naou entos tes pyles].

[73] _Pasch. Chron._ pp. 726-27.

[74] Mr. Pantchenko of the Russian Institute at Constantinople has found evidence that cloisters stood along the east and south sides of the great cistern to the south-west of the church.

[75] Constant. Porphyr. _De cer._ ii. pp. 562-3.

[76] Gyllius says six.

[77] See passage from his _Tagebuch_ quoted on page 50.

[78] _Altchristliche Baudenkmaler von Konstantinopel_, Blatt iv.

[79] _Vida del Gran Tamorlan y itinerario_, pp. 55-56 (Madrid, 1782).

[80] _I.e._ From the elevated floors of the galleries one could look over the church.

CHAPTER III

THE CHURCH OF SS. SERGIUS AND BACCHUS, KUTCHUK AYA SOFIA

On the level tract beside the Sea of Marmora, to the south of the Hippodrome, and a few paces to the north-west of Tchatlady Kapou, stands the ancient church of SS. Sergius and Bacchus. It is commonly known as the mosque Kutchuk Aya Sofia, Little S. Sophia, to denote at once its likeness and its unlikeness to the great church of that name. It can be reached by either of the two streets descending from the Hippodrome to the sea, or by taking train to Koum Kapou, and then walking eastwards for a short distance along the railroad.

There can be no doubt in regard to its identity. For the inscription on the entablature of the lower colonnade in the church proclaims the building to be a sanctuary erected by the Emperor Justinian and his Empress Theodora to the honour of the martyr Sergius. The building stands, moreover, as SS. Sergius and Bacchus stood, close to the site of the palace and the harbour of Hormisdas.[81] When Gyllius visited the city the Greek community still spoke of the building as the church of SS. Sergius and Bacchus--'Templum Sergii et Bacchi adhuc superest, cujus nomen duntaxat Graeci etiam nunc retinent.'[82]

[Illustration: PLATE XI.

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Byzantine Churches in Constantinople Part 6 summary

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