Home

Conversations on Chemistry Part 110

Conversations on Chemistry - lightnovelgate.com

You’re reading novel Conversations on Chemistry Part 110 online at Lightnovelgate.com. Please use the follow button to get notification about the latest chapter next time when you visit Lightnovelgate.com. Use F11 button to read novel in full-screen(PC only). Drop by anytime you want to read free – fast – latest novel. It’s great if you could leave a comment, share your opinion about the new chapters, new novel with others on the internet. We’ll do our best to bring you the finest, latest novel everyday. Enjoy

Such birds, in general, make but little use of their wings; if they fly, it is but feebly, and only to a short distance. Their flesh, too, partakes of the oily nature, and even in taste sometimes resembles that of fish. This is the case not only with the various kinds of water fowls, but with all other amphibious animals, as the otter, the crocodile, the lizard, &c.

CAROLINE.

And what is the reason that reptiles are so deficient in muscular strength?

MRS. B.

It is because they usually live under ground, and seldom come into the atmosphere. They have imperfect, and sometimes no discernible organs of respiration; they partake therefore of the soft oily nature of fish; indeed, many of them are amphibious, as frogs, toads, and snakes, and very few of them find any difficulty in remaining a length of time under water. Whilst, on the contrary, the insect tribe, that are so strong in proportion to their size, and alert in their motions, partake of the nature of birds, air being their peculiar element, and their organs of respiration being comparatively larger than in other cla.s.ses of animals.

I have now given you a short account of the princ.i.p.al animal functions.

However interesting the subject may appear to you, a fuller investigation of it would, I fear, lead us too far from our object.

EMILY.

Yet I shall not quit it without much regret; for of all the branches of chemistry, it is certainly the most curious and most interesting.

CAROLINE.

But, Mrs. B., I must remind you that you promised to give us some account of the nature of _milk_.

MRS. B.

True. There are several other animal productions that deserve likewise to be mentioned. We shall begin with milk, which is certainly the most important and the most interesting of all the animal secretions.

Milk, like all other animal substances, ultimately yields by a.n.a.lysis oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen. These are combined in it under the forms of alb.u.men, gelatine, oil, and water. But milk contains, besides, a considerable portion of phosphat of lime, the purposes of which I have already pointed out.

CAROLINE.

Yes; it is this salt which serves to nourish the tender bones of the suckling.

MRS. B.

To reduce milk to its elements, would be a very complicated, as well as useless operation; but this fluid, without any chemical a.s.sistance, may be decomposed into three parts, _cream_, _curds_, and _whey_. These const.i.tuents of milk have but a very slight affinity for each other, and you find accordingly that cream separates from milk by mere standing. It consists chiefly of oil, which being lighter than the other parts of the milk, gradually rises to the surface. It is of this, you know, that b.u.t.ter is made, which is nothing more than oxygenated cream.

CAROLINE.

b.u.t.ter, then, is somewhat a.n.a.logous to the waxy substance formed by the oxygenation of vegetable oils.

MRS. B.

Very much so.

EMILY.

But is the cream oxygenated by churning?

MRS. B.

Its oxygenation commences previous to churning, merely by standing exposed to the atmosphere, from which it absorbs oxygen. The process is afterwards completed by churning; the violent motion which this operation occasions brings every particle of cream in contact with the atmosphere, and thus facilitates its oxygenation.

CAROLINE.

But the effect of churning, I have often observed in the dairy, is to separate the cream into two substances, b.u.t.ter and b.u.t.ter-milk.

MRS. B.

That is to say, in proportion as the oily particles of the cream become oxygenated, they separate from the other const.i.tuent parts of the cream in the form of b.u.t.ter. So by churning you produce, on the one hand, b.u.t.ter, or oxygenated oil; and, on the other, b.u.t.ter-milk, or cream deprived of oil. But if you make b.u.t.ter by churning new milk instead of cream, the b.u.t.ter-milk will then be exactly similar in its properties to creamed or skimmed milk.

CAROLINE.

Yet b.u.t.ter-milk is very different from common skimmed milk.

MRS. B.

Because you know it is customary, in order to save time and labour, to make b.u.t.ter from cream alone. In this case, therefore, the b.u.t.ter-milk is deprived of the creamed milk, which contains both the curd and whey.

Besides, in consequence of the milk remaining exposed to the atmosphere during the separation of the cream, the latter becomes more or less acid, as well as the b.u.t.ter-milk which it yields in churning.

EMILY.

Why should not the b.u.t.ter be equally acidified by oxygenation?

MRS. B.

Animal oil is not so easily acidified as the other ingredients of milk.

b.u.t.ter, therefore, though usually made of sour cream, is not sour itself, because the oily part of the cream had not been acidified.

b.u.t.ter, however, is susceptible of becoming acid by an excess of oxygen; it is then said to be rancid, and produces the sebacic acid, the same as that which is obtained from fat.

EMILY.

If that be the case, might not rancid b.u.t.ter be sweetened by mixing with it some substance that would take the acid from it?

MRS. B.

This idea has been suggested by Sir H. Davy, who supposes, that if rancid b.u.t.ter were well washed in an alkaline solution, the alkali would separate the acid from the b.u.t.ter.

CAROLINE.

You said just now that creamed milk consisted of curd and whey. Pray how are these separated?

MRS. B.

They may be separated by standing for a certain length of time exposed to the atmosphere; but this decomposition may be almost instantaneously effected by the chemical agency of a variety of substances. Alkalies, rennet*, and indeed almost all animal substances, decompose milk by combining with the curds.

Acids and spirituous liquors, on the other hand, produce a decomposition by combining with the whey. In order, therefore, to obtain the whey pure, rennet, or alkaline substances, must be used to attract the curds from it.

But if it be wished to obtain the curds pure, the whey must be separated by acids, wine, or other spirituous liquors.

[Footnote *: Rennet is the name given to a watery infusion of the coats of the stomach of a sucking calf. Its remarkable efficacy in promoting coagulation is supposed to depend on the gastric juice with which it is impregnated.]

Please click Like and leave more comments to support and keep us alive.

Rates:

lightnovelgate.com rate: 4.5/ 5 - 2 votes

RECENTLY UPDATED MANGA

Conversations on Chemistry Part 110 summary

You're reading Conversations on Chemistry. This manga has been translated by Updating. Author(s): Jane Marcet. Already has 185 views.

It's great if you read and follow any novel on our website. We promise you that we'll bring you the latest, hottest novel everyday and FREE.

Lightnovelgate.com is a most smartest website for reading manga online, it can automatic resize images to fit your pc screen, even on your mobile. Experience now by using your smartphone and access to Lightnovelgate.com