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Grammatical Sketch of the Heve Language Part 2

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_Singular_.

Nee I wrote, Nee Nap > hiosguamru, You wrote, Nap > hiosguadauhru Id, or At,/ He wrote, Id, or At,/ I was written, &c.

_Plural_.

Tamid We wrote, Tamide Emet > hiosguameru Ye wrote, Emet, > hiosguadauaru, Ame / They wrote. Amet / We were written, &c.

PERFECT.

_Singular_.

Nee I have written, Nee Nap > hiosguari, Thou hast written, Nap > hiosguacauh, Id, or At,/ He has written, Id, or At,/ I have been written, &c.

_Plural_.

Tamide, We have written, Tamide, Emet, > hiosguarim, Ye have written, Emet, > hiosguacagua, Amet, / They have written, Amet, / We have been written, etc.

ANOTHER PERFECT.

Nee, hiosguarit, &c., I have been written, etc.

Tamide, hiosguarit, &c., We have been written, etc.

PLUPERFECT.

_Singular_.

Nee I had written. Nee, Nap > hiosgnariru, Thou hadst written, Nap, > hiosguacuahrutu Id, or At,/ He had written, Id or At,/ I had been written, etc.

_Plural_.

Tamide We had written, Tamide Emet > hiosguarimru, Ye had written, Emet > hiosguacaguaru, amet / They had written. Amet / We had been written, etc.

FUTURE.

_Singular._ Nee I will write, Nee Nap > hiosguatze, You will write. Nap > hiosguatzidauh, Id, or At,/ He will write, Id, or At,/ I will be written, &c.

_Plural._ Tamide We will write, Tamide Emet > hiosguatze, Ye will write, Emet > hiosguatzidagua, Amet / They will write. Amet / We will be written, etc.

IMPERATIVE MOOD.

_Singular._ Hiosgua, write thou. Wanting.

_Plural._ Hiosguavu, write ye.

Another form of the IMPERATIVE made with asma, to see.

_Singular._ Asmane Asmane Asmana > hiosguatze, Asmana > hiosguatzidauh, Asmair/ I will see that I write, &c., Asmair/ I shall see that I be written, &c.,

ANOTHER IMPERATIVE.

Venesmana hiosguam, Even though you write.

Venesmatze em hiosguame, Even though ye write.

ANOTHER IMPERATIVE.

_Singular._ Nee eme hiosguaco naquem, Nee eme hiosguarico naquem.

I will that you write. I will that thou be written.

_Plural._ Nee eme hiosguaco noquim, Nee ame hiosguarico naquem, I will that they write. I will that they be written.

OPTATIVE MOOD.

This mood appears to have been anciently used with cane, would that it might be! but now in general it is not so understood. The phrase may be deemed to be in the Optative, although it does not express that entirely, being formed by the union of the Imperative above with venesma, even though.

Venesmane hiosguam, Venesmane hiosguadauh, I would that it might be, or, I would that it might be, or, Even though I may write. Even though I may be written.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.

This mode of speech, If I should write, I should have written, &c., the natives express by adding the particle _ru_ to the future.

_Singular._ Nee Nee Nap > ghiosuatzeru, Nap > hiosquatzidauhru Id / If I should write, &c. Id / If I should be written, &c.

_Plural._ Tamide Tamide Emet > hiosguatzeru, Emet > hiosguatzidauru, Amet / If we should write, &c. Amet / If we should be written, &c.[4]

[Footnote 4: Conjunctions, corresponding to _aunque, paraque, cuando_, and the like which it is common to make use of with the subjunctive in Spanish do not exist in the language.]

INFINITIVE MOOD.

Although this mode does not exist in the language, still the natives have ways to express the thought, some of which are these:

One mode is by the verb eram, I wish or think; so that to say, I wish to write, Nee hiosguavaeram may be used, which is the future hiosguatze, with the final syllable omitted for the particle va, and followed by the eram. In the same manner, other verbs may be proceeded with, they remaining stable through all the mutations that eram undergoes, as in the following:

ACTIVE VOICE.

INDICATIVE MOOD.

_Present_, Eram, I wish. _Pluperfect_, Ehritu, I had wished.

_Imperfect_, Eramtu, I wished. _Future_, Eratze, I shall wish.

_Perfect_, Ehri, I have wished.

SUBJUNCTIVE, (Impt?) Eratzern, I might wish, etc.

In the passive eram is not used, but naquem, which also means, I wish, and with the preterite particle, in the manner that is stated in the fourth form of the imperative, the infinitive mood in this voice is expressed, as, Nee no hiosguarico naquem, I desire to be written.

Another mode that serves for the Infinitive, is that after a verb of motion, the future of the verb is used, as to express, I come to you to say, Nee eme queitudetze guerem: here, Nee is I; eme, to you; guerem, or uerem, I come, and queitudetze the future of the verb queituden, I say, or make known.

GERUNDS.

The gerund in _di_ is found in the expression: Already arrived the time of labor; for which, taking the preterite panauhri, the verb panauan signifying labor, add dagua, time, and for arrived use hasside, the preterite of hassem, followed by the de, particle, signifying already, and the phrase is formed panauhridagua hasside.

The gerund in _do_ is found in the phrase Vus hoquedo panavame, the boys playing, work, in which vus is boys, hoquedo or hoqueco, the gerund of hoquen, play, and panavame, the plural of panavan, work. The passive voice has likewise the gerund, as for example: Nap sicriuhdo cotzom, Whilst thou art shorn, sleepest; here nap cotzom is, you sleep, sicriuhdo is the gerund in do passive of the verb sican, and toasquilo, hair.

The gerund in _dum_, and supine joined to a verb of motion is equivalent to the future as before stated in the second mode of the infinitive; but should there be no verb of movement with the gerund in dum, the particle betzeuai, for, is used, as this suffices for payment, (hoc ad solvendum sufficit,) Veride hasem ovide betzeguai; veride meaning this, hasem, suffices; ovide betzevai, for payment; oviden signifying pay.

Thus much it has been found necessary to say of the verb in its active and passive voice, of its modes and times, which will serve as a paradigm for the conjugation of any verb observant of the form of its preterite and future (the roots whence rise the other tenses) to be discovered in the vocabulary.

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