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The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India Part 60

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_Uika, Oika_.--A very common clan of Gonds, who are said to be worshippers of six gods.

_Ukas_.--A subcaste of Barhai.

_Ulluka_.--(An owl.) A totemistic sept of Sudh and Dumal.

_Umre_.--A subcaste of Bania. See subordinate article to Bania. A subcaste of Kalar, Nai and Teli.

_Unayo, Unnaya_.--(From Unan in Oudh.) A subdivision of Nigam Kayasth. It is also sometimes considered as a half subcaste, in addition to the twelve proper subcastes.

_Unewal_.--A subdivision of Rhedawal Brahmans found in Jubbulpore. They take their name from Una, a village in Kathiawar.

_Upadhya_.--(A teacher.) A surname of Kananjia and Sanadhya Brahmans. A title of Manbhao.

_Upmanyu_.--An eponymous section of Brahmans.

_Uraon_.--Synonym of Oraon.

_Uriya_,--(A native of Orissa.) A synonym for the Sansia caste of masons in Sambalpur. A subcaste of Ganda, Ghasia, Gond, Karan, Kewat, Koshti, Savar, Sundi and Sunar.

_Urkara, Urkare_.--(From Warkora, a wild cat in Gondi.) A section of Sunar and Gond.

_Usrete_.--A subcaste of Kurmi and Nai.

_Uthaigira_.--(A picker-up of that which has fallen.) Synonym of Sanaurhia.

_Utkala_.--(A resident of Orissa.) One of the five orders of Panch Gaur Brahmans inhabiting Orissa.

_Vadar or Wadewar_.--(A stone-cutter.) Synonym of Beldar.

_Vade, Wade_.--(A carpenter.) A sept of Maria Gonds.

_Vadra_.--(A carpenter.) Subcaste of Kammala.

_Vaghe_.--(From _vagh_, a tiger.) See Waghya.

_Vaidika_.--(Reciter of the Vedas.) A title of Brahmans.

_Vaishnava_.--(A worshipper of Vishnu.) A name for the mendicant orders of Vishnuite devotees and Bairagis.

_Vaishnava Sunar_.--A group of Sunars who claim to be Brahmans. See Panchal.

_Vaishya_.--Name of the third of the four classical castes. See Introduction. There is no Vaishya caste at present, but the Bania caste are considered, perhaps incorrectly, to be descended from the Vaishyas.

_Vajantri, Wajantri_.--(Musician.) A subcaste of Gurao. A synonym and section of Mang.

_Vallabkacharya_.--A Vishnuite sect and order of religious mendicants. See article Bairagi.

_Valmika, Valmiki_.--A subdivision of Khedawal Brahmans who take their name from the sage Valmika. A subcaste of Kayasths.

_Vamachari Sect_.--Synonym for Vam-Margi.

_Vani_.--Synonym for Bania.

_Varade, Warade_.--(A resident of Berar, a variant of Berari, _q.v._) A subcaste of Simpi or Maratha Darzi. A subcaste of Dhangar and Nai.

_Varendra or Barendra_.--A subcaste of Bengali Brahmans.

_Vartati_.--(Pure.) Subcaste of Andh.

_Vasishta or Vashishta_.--Name of a famous saint in classical literature. An eponymous section of Brahmans.

_Vellala_.--The great cultivating caste of the Tamil country, to whom by general consent the first place in social esteem among the Tamil Sudra castes is awarded. They have a strength of more than 2 1/2 millions in India; in the Central Provinces there were in 1911 about 700 in Chanda, Nagpur and other Districts. In the _Madras Census Report_ of 1901, Mr. Francis gives an interesting description of the structure of the caste and its numerous territorial, occupational and other subdivisions. He shows also how groups from lower castes continually succeed in obtaining admission into the Vellala community in the following passage: "Instances of members of other castes who have assumed the name and position of Vellalas are the Vettuva Vellalas, who are really Vettuvans; the Puluva Vellalas, who are only Puluvans; the Illam Vellalas, who are Panikkans; the Karaiturai (lord of the shore) Vellalas, who are Karaiyans; the Karukamattai (palmyra leaf stem) Vellalas, who are Balijas; the Guha (Rama's boatman) Vellalas, who are Sembadavans; and the Irkuli Vellalas, who are Vannans. The children of dancing girls also often call themselves Mudali, and claim in time to be Vellalas, and even Paraiyans assume the title of Pillai, and trust to its eventually enabling them to pass themselves off as members of the caste." The Vellalas will not touch the plough with their own hands. Some of them abstain from flesh and liquor, and prohibit the remarriage of widows with a view to raising their social status.

_Vidur_.--A caste. A subcaste of Gondhali, Kasar, Komti, Kunbi, and Lohar, comprising persons of illegitimate descent.

_Vir_.--Subcaste of Gopal.

_Virmushti_.--A class of Bairagis or religious mendicants.

_Vishnu Swami_.--A class of Bairagis or religious mendicants.

_Vishwamitra_.--Name of a famous saint in classical literature. An eponymous section of Brahmans.

_Vyas_.--A section of Brahmans and of Agharia.

_Waddar_.--A name for Telugu Oddes or navvies in Chanda. A subcaste of Beldar.

_Wadewar_.--Synonym of Odde or Beldar in Chanda.

_Waghe_.--(_Wagh_ or _bagh_, a tiger.) A section of Koshti and Mana, a clan of Maratha.

_Waghmare_.--(Tiger-killer.) A clan of Arakh, Gopal and Mahar.

_Wakkaliga, Okkiliyan_.--A Canarese caste of cultivators, of which a few representatives were returned from Nagpur. They reside mainly in the Madura and Coimbatore Districts. The name is derived from the Canarese _okkalu_, [510] which means cultivation or agriculture.

_Wakmar_.--(One who left the _pangat_ or caste feast while his fellows were eating.) Title of Hatkar.

_Wandhekar_.--Subcaste of Kunbi.

_Wanjari_.--Synonym for Banjara. Subcaste of Kunbi.

_Warade_.--(A resident of Berar.) Subcaste of Gurao.

_Wartki_.--(A washerman.) Synonym for Dhobi in the Maratha country.

_Wasudeo, Wasdeo_.--The name of the father of Krishna, the Hindu god. Synonym of Basdewa. A subcaste of Joshi.

_Watkari_. See Otari.

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The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India Part 60 summary

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